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waste products of the body, are products of putrefaction. Thus

blood, semen, marrow, figjuice, and all things of the kinds are hot as

long as they are in their natural state, but when they perish and fall

away from that state they are so no longer. For what is left of them

is their matter and that is earth and water. Hence both views are held

about them, some people maintaining them to be cold and others to be

warm; for they are observed to be hot when they are in their natural

state, but to solidify when they have fallen away from it. That, then,

is the case of mixed bodies. However, the distinction we laid down

holds good: if its matter is predominantly water a body is cold (water

being the complete opposite of fire), but if earth or air it tends

to be warm.

It sometimes happens that the coldest bodies can be raised to the

highest temperature by foreign heat; for the most solid and the

hardest bodies are coldest when deprived of heat and most burning

after exposure to fire: thus water is more burning than smoke and

stone than water.


Having explained all this we must describe the nature of flesh,

bone, and the other homogeneous bodies severally.

Our account of the formation of the homogeneous bodies has given

us the elements out of which they are compounded and the classes

into which they fall, and has made it clear to which class each of

those bodies belongs. The homogeneous bodies are made up of the

elements, and all the works of nature in turn of the homogeneous

bodies as matter. All the homogeneous bodies consist of the elements

described, as matter, but their essential nature is determined by

their definition. This fact is always clearer in the case of the later

products of those, in fact, that are instruments, as it were, and have

an end: it is clearer, for instance, that a dead man is a man only

in name. And so the hand of a dead man, too, will in the same way be a

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