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Nicomachean Ethics   


For there is nothing common to the two parties; the slave is a living
tool and the tool a lifeless slave. Qua slave then, one cannot be
friends with him. But qua man one can; for there seems to be some
justice between any man and any other who can share in a system of law
or be a party to an agreement; therefore there can also be friendship
with him in so far as he is a man. Therefore while in tyrannies
friendship and justice hardly exist, in democracies they exist more
fully; for where the citizens are equal they have much in common.
12
Every form of friendship, then, involves association, as has been
said. One might, however, mark off from the rest both the friendship
of kindred and that of comrades. Those of fellow-citizens,
fellow-tribesmen, fellow-voyagers, and the like are more like mere
friendships of association; for they seem to rest on a sort of
compact. With them we might class the friendship of host and guest.
The friendship of kinsmen itself, while it seems to be of many kinds,
appears to depend in every case on parental friendship; for parents
love their children as being a part of themselves, and children their
parents as being something originating from them. Now (1) arents know
their offspring better than there children know that they are their
children, and (2) the originator feels his offspring to be his own
more than the offspring do their begetter; for the product belongs to
the producer (e.g. a tooth or hair or anything else to him whose it
is), but the producer does not belong to the product, or belongs in a
less degree. And (3) the length of time produces the same result;
parents love their children as soon as these are born, but children
love their parents only after time has elapsed and they have acquired
understanding or the power of discrimination by the senses. From these
considerations it is also plain why mothers love more than fathers do.
Parents, then, love their children as themselves (for their issue are
by virtue of their separate existence a sort of other selves), while
children love their parents as being born of them, and brothers love
each other as being born of the same parents; for their identity with
them makes them identical with each other (which is the reason why
people talk of 'the same blood', 'the same stock', and so on). They
are, therefore, in a sense the same thing, though in separate
individuals. Two things that contribute greatly to friendship are a
common upbringing and similarity of age; for 'two of an age take to
each other', and people brought up together tend to be comrades;
whence the friendship of brothers is akin to that of comrades. And
cousins and other kinsmen are bound up together by derivation from
brothers, viz. by being derived from the same parents. They come to be
closer together or farther apart by virtue of the nearness or distance
of the original ancestor.
The friendship of children to parents, and of men to gods, is a
relation to them as to something good and superior; for they have
conferred the greatest benefits, since they are the causes of their
being and of their nourishment, and of their education from their
birth; and this kind of friendship possesses pleasantness and utility
also, more than that of strangers, inasmuch as their life is lived
more in common. The friendship of brothers has the characteristics
found in that of comrades (and especially when these are good), and in
general between people who are like each other, inasmuch as they
belong more to each other and start with a love for each other from
their very birth, and inasmuch as those born of the same parents and
brought up together and similarly educated are more akin in character;
and the test of time has been applied most fully and convincingly in
their case.
Between other kinsmen friendly relations are found in due proportion.
Between man and wife friendship seems to exist by nature; for man is
naturally inclined to form couples-even more than to form cities,
inasmuch as the household is earlier and more necessary than the city,
and reproduction is more common to man with the animals. With the
other animals the union extends only to this point, but human beings

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