meaning. Thus in the word 'pirate-boat' the word 'boat' has no meaning
except as part of the whole word.
The limitation 'by convention' was introduced because nothing is
by nature a noun or name-it is only so when it becomes a symbol;
inarticulate sounds, such as those which brutes produce, are
significant, yet none of these constitutes a noun.
The expression 'not-man' is not a noun. There is indeed no
recognized term by which we may denote such an expression, for it is
not a sentence or a denial. Let it then be called an indefinite noun.
The expressions 'of Philo', 'to Philo', and so on, constitute not
nouns, but cases of a noun. The definition of these cases of a noun is
in other respects the same as that of the noun proper, but, when
coupled with 'is', 'was', or will be', they do not, as they are,
form a proposition either true or false, and this the noun proper
always does, under these conditions. Take the words 'of Philo is' or
'of or 'of Philo is not'; these words do not, as they stand, form
either a true or a false proposition.
A verb is that which, in addition to its proper meaning, carries
with it the notion of time. No part of it has any independent meaning,
and it is a sign of something said of something else.
I will explain what I mean by saying that it carries with it the
notion of time. 'Health' is a noun, but 'is healthy' is a verb; for
besides its proper meaning it indicates the present existence of the
state in question.
Moreover, a verb is always a sign of something said of something
else, i.e. of something either predicable of or present in some
Such expressions as 'is not-healthy', 'is not, ill', I do not
describe as verbs; for though they carry the additional note of