time, and always form a predicate, there is no specified name for this
variety; but let them be called indefinite verbs, since they apply
equally well to that which exists and to that which does not.
Similarly 'he was healthy', 'he will be healthy', are not verbs, but
tenses of a verb; the difference lies in the fact that the verb
indicates present time, while the tenses of the verb indicate those
times which lie outside the present.
Verbs in and by themselves are substantival and have significance,
for he who uses such expressions arrests the hearer's mind, and
fixes his attention; but they do not, as they stand, express any
judgement, either positive or negative. For neither are 'to be' and
'not to be' the participle 'being' significant of any fact, unless
something is added; for they do not themselves indicate anything,
but imply a copulation, of which we cannot form a conception apart
from the things coupled.
A sentence is a significant portion of speech, some parts of which
have an independent meaning, that is to say, as an utterance, though
not as the expression of any positive judgement. Let me explain. The
word 'human' has meaning, but does not constitute a proposition,
either positive or negative. It is only when other words are added
that the whole will form an affirmation or denial. But if we
separate one syllable of the word 'human' from the other, it has no
meaning; similarly in the word 'mouse', the part 'ouse' has no meaning
in itself, but is merely a sound. In composite words, indeed, the
parts contribute to the meaning of the whole; yet, as has been pointed
out, they have not an independent meaning.
Every sentence has meaning, not as being the natural means by
which a physical faculty is realized, but, as we have said, by
convention. Yet every sentence is not a proposition; only such are