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On Memory And Reminiscense   

may conclude that it belongs to the faculty of intelligence only

incidentally, while directly and essentially it belongs to the primary

faculty of sense-perception.

Hence not only human beings and the beings which possess opinion

or intelligence, but also certain other animals, possess memory. If

memory were a function of (pure) intellect, it would not have been

as it is an attribute of many of the lower animals, but probably, in

that case, no mortal beings would have had memory; since, even as

the case stands, it is not an attribute of them all, just because

all have not the faculty of perceiving time. Whenever one actually

remembers having seen or heard, or learned, something, he includes

in this act (as we have already observed) the consciousness of

'formerly'; and the distinction of 'former' and 'latter' is a

distinction in time.

Accordingly if asked, of which among the parts of the soul memory is

a function, we reply: manifestly of that part to which

'presentation' appertains; and all objects capable of being

presented (viz. aistheta) are immediately and properly objects of

memory, while those (viz. noeta) which necessarily involve (but only

involve) presentation are objects of memory incidentally.

One might ask how it is possible that though the affection (the

presentation) alone is present, and the (related) fact absent, the

latter-that which is not present-is remembered. (The question arises),

because it is clear that we must conceive that which is generated

through sense-perception in the sentient soul, and in the part of

the body which is its seat-viz. that affection the state whereof we

call memory-to be some such thing as a picture. The process of

movement (sensory stimulation) involved the act of perception stamps

in, as it were, a sort of impression of the percept, just as persons

do who make an impression with a seal. This explains why, in those who

are strongly moved owing to passion, or time of life, no mnemonic

impression is formed; just as no impression would be formed if the

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