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On Sophistical Refutations   

proved; we need a further question to show that 'doublet' means the

same thing, in order to satisfy any one who asks why you think your

point proved.

Fallacies that depend on Accident are clear cases of ignoratio

elenchi when once 'proof' has been defined. For the same definition

ought to hold good of 'refutation' too, except that a mention of

'the contradictory' is here added: for a refutation is a proof of

the contradictory. If, then, there is no proof as regards an

accident of anything, there is no refutation. For supposing, when A

and B are, C must necessarily be, and C is white, there is no

necessity for it to be white on account of the syllogism. So, if the

triangle has its angles equal to two right-angles, and it happens to

be a figure, or the simplest element or starting point, it is not

because it is a figure or a starting point or simplest element that it

has this character. For the demonstration proves the point about it

not qua figure or qua simplest element, but qua triangle. Likewise

also in other cases. If, then, refutation is a proof, an argument

which argued per accidens could not be a refutation. It is, however,

just in this that the experts and men of science generally suffer

refutation at the hand of the unscientific: for the latter meet the

scientists with reasonings constituted per accidens; and the

scientists for lack of the power to draw distinctions either say 'Yes'

to their questions, or else people suppose them to have said 'Yes',

although they have not.

Those that depend upon whether something is said in a certain

respect only or said absolutely, are clear cases of ignoratio

elenchi because the affirmation and the denial are not concerned

with the same point. For of 'white in a certain respect' the

negation is 'not white in a certain respect', while of 'white

absolutely' it is 'not white, absolutely'. If, then, a man treats

the admission that a thing is 'white in a certain respect' as though

it were said to be white absolutely, he does not effect a

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