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On Sophistical Refutations   

from individual men. But that is a fallacy, for 'Man', and indeed

every general predicate, denotes not an individual substance, but a

particular quality, or the being related to something in a

particular manner, or something of that sort. Likewise also in the

case of 'Coriscus' and 'Coriscus the musician' there is the problem,

Are they the same or different?' For the one denotes an individual

substance and the other a quality, so that it cannot be isolated;

though it is not the isolation which creates the 'third man', but

the admission that it is an individual substance. For 'Man' cannot

be an individual substance, as Callias is. Nor is the case improved

one whit even if one were to call the clement he has isolated not an

individual substance but a quality: for there will still be the one

beside the many, just as 'Man' was. It is evident then that one must

not grant that what is a common predicate applying to a class

universally is an individual substance, but must say that denotes

either a quality, or a relation, or a quantity, or something of that



It is a general rule in dealing with arguments that depend on

language that the solution always follows the opposite of the point on

which the argument turns: e.g. if the argument depends upon

combination, then the solution consists in division; if upon division,

then in combination. Again, if it depends on an acute accent, the

solution is a grave accent; if on a grave accent, it is an acute. If

it depends on ambiguity, one can solve it by using the opposite

term; e.g. if you find yourself calling something inanimate, despite

your previous denial that it was so, show in what sense it is alive:

if, on the other hand, one has declared it to be inanimate and the

sophist has proved it to be animate, say how it is inanimate. Likewise

also in a case of amphiboly. If the argument depends on likeness of

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