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On Sophistical Refutations   

is an evil thing, but not to get rid of disease. 'Is the just

preferable to the unjust, and what takes place justly to what takes

place unjustly? 'Yes.' 'But to to be put to death unjustly is

preferable.' 'Is it just that each should have his own?' 'Yes.' 'But

whatever decisions a man comes to on the strength of his personal

opinion, even if it be a false opinion, are valid in law: therefore

the same result is both just and unjust.' Also, should one decide in

favour of him who says what is unjust?' 'The former.' 'But you see, it

is just for the injured party to say fully the things he has suffered;

and these are fallacies. For because to suffer a thing unjustly is

preferable, unjust ways are not therefore preferable, though in this

particular case the unjust may very well be better than the just.

Also, to have one's own is just, while to have what is another's is

not just: all the same, the decision in question may very well be a

just decision, whatever it be that the opinion of the man who gave the

decision supports: for because it is just in this particular case or

in this particular manner, it is not also just absolutely. Likewise

also, though things are unjust, there is nothing to prevent the

speaking of them being just: for because to speak of things is just,

there is no necessity that the things should be just, any more than

because to speak of things be of use, the things need be of use.

Likewise also in the case of what is just. So that it is not the

case that because the things spoken of are unjust, the victory goes to

him who speaks unjust things: for he speaks of things that are just to

speak of, though absolutely, i.e. to suffer, they are unjust.


Refutations that depend on the definition of a refutation must,

according to the plan sketched above, be met by comparing together the

conclusion with its contradictory, and seeing that it shall involve

the same attribute in the same respect and relation and manner and

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