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On The Generation Of Animals   

We have now discussed the situation of the parts contributing to
generation, and the causes thereof.


The bloodless animals do not agree either with the sanguinea or with
each other in the fashion of the parts contributing to generation.
There are four classes still left to deal with, first the crustacea,
secondly the cephalopoda, thirdly the insects, and fourthly the
testacea. We cannot be certain about all of them, but that most of
them copulate is plain; in what manner they unite must be stated

The crustacea copulate like the retromingent quadrupeds, fitting
their tails to one another, the one supine and the other prone. For
the flaps attached to the sides of the tail being long prevent them
from uniting with the belly against the back. The males have fine
spermatic ducts, the females a membranous uterus alongside the
intestine, cloven on each side, in which the egg is produced.


The cephalopoda entwine together at the mouth, pushing against one
another and enfolding their arms. This attitude is necessary,
because Nature has bent backwards the end of the intestine and brought
it round near the mouth, as has been said before in the treatise on
the parts of animals. The female has a part corresponding to the
uterus, plainly to be seen in each of these animals, for it contains
an egg which is at first indivisible to the eye but afterwards
splits up into many; each of these eggs is imperfect when deposited,
as with the oviparous fishes. In the cephalopoda (as also in the
crustacea) the same passage serves to void the excrement and leads to
the part like a uterus, for the male discharges the seminal fluid
through this passage. And it is on the lower surface of the body,
where the mantle is open and the sea-water enters the cavity. Hence
the union of the male with the female takes place at this point, for
it is necessary, if the male discharges either semen or a part of
himself or any other force, that he should unite with her at the
uterine passage. But the insertion, in the case of the poulps, of
the arm of the male into the funnel of the female, by which arm the
fishermen say the male copulates with her, is only for the sake of
attachment, and it is not an organ useful for generation, for it is
outside the passage in the male and indeed outside the body of the
male altogether.

Sometimes also cephalopoda unite by the male mounting on the back of
the female, but whether for generation or some other cause has not yet
been observed.


Some insects copulate and the offspring are produced from animals of
the same name, just as with the sanguinea; such are the locusts,
cicadae, spiders, wasps, and ants. Others unite indeed and generate;
but the result is not a creature of the same kind, but only a
scolex, and these insects do not come into being from animals but from
putrefying matter, liquid or solid; such are fleas, flies, and
cantharides. Others again are neither produced from animals nor
unite with each other; such are gnats, 'conopes', and many similar
kinds. In most of those which unite the female is larger than the
male. The males do not appear to have spermatic passages. In most
cases the male does not insert any part into the female, but the
female from below upwards into the male; this has been observed in
many cases (as also that the male mounts the female), the opposite

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