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On The Heavens   

need not be troubled by the question, arising from the spherical shape

of the world, how there can be a distinction of right and left

within it, all parts being alike and all for ever in motion. We must

think of the world as of something in which right differs from left in

shape as well as in other respects, which subsequently is included

in a sphere. The difference of function will persist, but will

appear not to by reason of the regularity of shape. In the same

fashion must we conceive of the beginning of its movement. For even if

it never began to move, yet it must possess a principle from which

it would have begun to move if it had begun, and from which it would

begin again if it came to a stand. Now by its length I mean the

interval between its poles, one pole being above and the other

below; for two hemispheres are specially distinguished from all others

by the immobility of the poles. Further, by 'transverse' in the

universe we commonly mean, not above and below, but a direction

crossing the line of the poles, which, by implication, is length:

for transverse motion is motion crossing motion up and down. Of the

poles, that which we see above us is the lower region, and that

which we do not see is the upper. For right in anything is, as we say,

the region in which locomotion originates, and the rotation of the

heaven originates in the region from which the stars rise. So this

will be the right, and the region where they set the left. If then

they begin from the right and move round to the right, the upper

must be the unseen pole. For if it is the pole we see, the movement

will be leftward, which we deny to be the fact. Clearly then the

invisible pole is above. And those who live in the other hemisphere

are above and to the right, while we are below and to the left. This

is just the opposite of the view of the Pythagoreans, who make us

above and on the right side and those in the other hemisphere below

and on the left side; the fact being the exact opposite. Relatively,

however, to the secondary revolution, I mean that of the planets, we

are above and on the right and they are below and on the left. For the

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