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On The Crown   

ON THE CROWN

[_Introduction_. The advice given by Demosthenes in the Third Philippic
(spoken before the middle of 341) was in the main followed. He himself was
sent almost immediately to Byzantium, where he renewed the alliance
between that city and Athens, and at the same time entered into relations
with Abydos and the Thracian princes. Rhodes, and probably Chios and Cos,
were also conciliated, and an embassy was sent to the King of Persia to
ask for aid against Philip. The king appears to have sent assistance to
Diopeithes, and it is also stated (not on the best authority) that he sent
large sums of money to Demosthenes and Hypereides. Demosthenes further
succeeded, in conjunction with Callias of Chalcis, in organizing a league
against Philip, which included Corinth, Megara, Corcyra, and the
Acarnanians, and which at least supplied a considerable number of men and
some funds. The cities of Euboea, most of which had been in the hands of
Philip's party, were also formed into a confederacy, in alliance with
Athens, under the leadership of Chalcis; Philistides was expelled from
Oreus, about July 341, by the allied forces under Cephisophon; and later
in the summer, Phocion drove Cleitarchus from Eretria. On the motion of
Aristonicus, the Athenians voted Demosthenes a golden crown, which was
conferred on him in the theatre at the Great Dionysia in March 340. The
arrest of Anaxinus of Oreus, and his condemnation as a spy, acting in
Philip's interest, must have occurred about the same time. Not long
afterwards Demosthenes succeeded in carrying out a complete reorganization
of the trierarchic system, by which he made the burden of the expense vary
strictly according to property, and secured a regular and efficient supply
of ships, money, and men.

In the meantime (in 341 or 340) the island of Peparethus was attacked by
Philip's ships, in revenge for the seizure of the Macedonian garrison in
Halonnesus by the Peparethians: and the Athenian admirals were ordered to
retaliate. Philip himself had been pursuing his course in Thrace; and on
the rejection of his request to Byzantium for an alliance, he laid siege
(late in 340) to Perinthus (which lay on his way to Byzantium), sending
part of his forces through the Chersonese. Aided by Byzantine and Persian
soldiers, Perinthus held out, till at last Philip took off most of his
forces and besieged Byzantium itself. He had shortly before this sent to
Athens an express declaration of war, and received a similar declaration
from her, the formal excuse for which was found in the recent seizure by
his ships of some Athenian merchant-vessels. But with help from Athens,
Chios, Rhodes, and Cos, the Byzantines maintained the defence. Philip's
position became serious; but he managed by a ruse to get his ships away
into the open sea, and even to do some damage to the Athenian settlers in
the Chersonese. In the winter he withdrew from Byzantium, and in 339 made
an incursion into Scythia; but, returning through the country of the
Triballi, he sustained some loss, and was severely wounded. Later in the
year a new Sacred War which had arisen gave him a convenient opportunity
for the invasion of Greece.

At the meeting of the Amphictyonic Council in the autumn of 340,[1]
Aeschines was one of the representatives of Athens. The Athenians had
recently offended Thebes by re-gilding and dedicating in the restored
temple at Delphi fifty shields, with an inscription stating that they were
spoil 'taken from the Medes and the Thebans, when they fought against the
Hellenes' (probably at Plataeae in 479). The Locrians of Amphissa intended
(according to Aeschines' account) to propose that the Council should fine
Athens fifty talents. Aeschines rose to state the case for Athens; but a
delegate from Amphissa forbade all mention of the Athenians, and demanded
their exclusion from the temple, on the ground of their alliance with the
accursed Phocians. Aeschines retorted by charging the Amphisseans with
cultivating and building upon the sacred plain of Cirrha--acts forbidden
for all time in 586 B.C.--and roused the Council to such indignation that
they gathered a body of men and destroyed the harbour and the unlawful
buildings of Cirrha; but they were severely handled by the Amphisseans,

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