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The First Book, Entitled

THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he
publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the
remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and
wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from losing their
due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were their grounds
of feuds.
According to the Persians best informed in history, the
Phoenicians began to quarrel. This people, who had formerly dwelt on
the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean
and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they
say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the
wares of Egypt and Assyria. They landed at many places on the coast,
and among the rest at Argos, which was then preeminent above all the
states included now under the common name of Hellas. Here they exposed
their merchandise, and traded with the natives for five or six days;
at the end of which time, when almost everything was sold, there
came down to the beach a number of women, and among them the
daughter of the king, who was, they say, agreeing in this with the
Greeks, Io, the child of Inachus. The women were standing by the stern
of the ship intent upon their purchases, when the Phoenicians, with
a general shout, rushed upon them. The greater part made their escape,
but some were seized and carried off. Io herself was among the
captives. The Phoenicians put the women on board their vessel, and set
sail for Egypt. Thus did Io pass into Egypt, according to the
Persian story, which differs widely from the Phoenician: and thus
commenced, according to their authors, the series of outrages.
At a later period, certain Greeks, with whose name they are
unacquainted, but who would probably be Cretans, made a landing at
Tyre, on the Phoenician coast, and bore off the king's daughter,
Europe. In this they only retaliated; but afterwards the Greeks,
they say, were guilty of a second violence. They manned a ship of war,
and sailed to Aea, a city of Colchis, on the river Phasis; from
whence, after despatching the rest of the business on which they had
come, they carried off Medea, the daughter of the king of the land.
The monarch sent a herald into Greece to demand reparation of the
wrong, and the restitution of his child; but the Greeks made answer
that, having received no reparation of the wrong done them in the
seizure of Io the Argive, they should give none in this instance.
In the next generation afterwards, according to the same
authorities, Alexander the son of Priam, bearing these events in mind,
resolved to procure himself a wife out of Greece by violence, fully
persuaded, that as the Greeks had not given satisfaction for their
outrages, so neither would he be forced to make any for his.
Accordingly he made prize of Helen; upon which the Greeks decided
that, before resorting to other measures, they would send envoys to
reclaim the princess and require reparation of the wrong. Their
demands were met by a reference to the violence which had been offered
to Medea, and they were asked with what face they could now require
satisfaction, when they had formerly rejected all demands for either
reparation or restitution addressed to them.
Hitherto the injuries on either side had been mere acts of
common violence; but in what followed the Persians consider that the
Greeks were greatly to blame, since before any attack had been made on
Europe, they led an army into Asia. Now as for the carrying off of
women, it is the deed, they say, of a rogue: but to make a stir
about such as are carried off, argues a man a fool. Men of sense
care nothing for such women, since it is plain that without their
own consent they would never be forced away. The Asiatics, when the
Greeks ran off with their women, never troubled themselves about the
matter; but the Greeks, for the sake of a single Lacedaemonian girl,
collected a vast armament, invaded Asia, and destroyed the kingdom

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