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in no danger of attack, as Cyrus had received them into alliance.
The islanders also had as yet nothing to fear, since Phoenicia was
still independent of Persia, and the Persians themselves were not a
seafaring people. The Milesians had separated from the common cause
solely on account of the extreme weakness of the Ionians: for,
feeble as the power of the entire Hellenic race was at that time, of
all its tribes the Ionic was by far the feeblest and least esteemed,
not possessing a single State of any mark excepting Athens. The
Athenians and most of the other Ionic States over the world, went so
far in their dislike of the name as actually to lay it aside; and even
at the present day the greater number of them seem to me to be ashamed
of it. But the twelve cities in Asia have always gloried in the
appellation; they gave the temple which they built for themselves
the name of the Panionium, and decreed that it should not be open to
any of the other Ionic States; no State, however, except Smyrna, has
craved admission to it.
In the same way the Dorians of the region which is now called
the Pentapolis, but which was formerly known as the Doric Hexapolis,
exclude all their Dorian neighbours from their temple, the Triopium:
nay, they have even gone so far as to shut out from it certain of
their own body who were guilty of an offence against the customs of
the place. In the games which were anciently celebrated in honour of
the Triopian Apollo, the prizes given to the victors were tripods of
brass; and the rule was that these tripods should not be carried
away from the temple, but should then and there be dedicated to the
god. Now a man of Halicarnassus, whose name was Agasicles, being
declared victor in the games, in open contempt of the law, took the
tripod home to his own house and there hung it against the wall. As
a punishment for this fault, the five other cities, Lindus,
Ialyssus, Cameirus, Cos, and Cnidus, deprived the sixth city,
Halicarnassus, of the right of entering the temple.
The Ionians founded twelve cities in Asia, and refused to
enlarge the number, on account (as I imagine) of their having been
divided into twelve States when they lived in the Peloponnese; just as
the Achaeans, who drove them out, are at the present day. The first
city of the Achaeans after Sicyon, is Pellene, next to which are
Aegeira, Aegae upon the Crathis, a stream which is never dry, and from
which the Italian Crathis received its name,- Bura, Helice- where
the Ionians took refuge on their defeat by the Achaean invaders-
Aegium, Rhypes, Patreis, Phareis, Olenus on the Peirus, which is a
large river- Dyme and Tritaeeis, all sea-port towns except the last
two, which lie up the country.
These are the twelve divisions of what is now Achaea, and was
formerly Ionia; and it was owing to their coming from a country so
divided that the Ionians, on reaching Asia, founded their twelve
States: for it is the height of folly to maintain that these Ionians
are more Ionian than the rest, or in any respect better born, since
the truth is that no small portion of them were Abantians from Euboea,
who are not even Ionians in name; and, besides, there were mixed up
with the emigration Minyae from Orchomenus, Cadmeians, Dryopians,
Phocians from the several cities of Phocis, Molossians, Arcadian
Pelasgi, Dorians from Epidaurus, and many other distinct tribes.
Even those who came from the Prytaneum of Athens, and reckon
themselves the purest Ionians of all, brought no wives with them to
the new country, but married Carian girls, whose fathers they had
slain. Hence these women made a law, which they bound themselves by an
oath to observe, and which they handed down to their daughters after
them, "That none should ever sit at meat with her husband, or call him
by his name"; because the invaders slew their fathers, their husbands,
and their sons, and then forced them to become their wives. It was
at Miletus that these events took place.
The kings, too, whom they set over them, were either Lycians, of
the blood of Glaucus, son of Hippolochus, or Pylian Caucons of the
blood of Codrus, son of Melanthus; or else from both those families.

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