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in the place. For five years they annoyed their neighbours by
plundering and pillaging on all sides, until at length the
Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians leagued against them, and sent each a
fleet of sixty ships to attack the town. The Phocaeans, on their part,
manned all their vessels, sixty in number, and met their enemy on
the Sardinian sea. In the engagement which followed the Phocaeans were
victorious, but their success was only a sort of Cadmeian victory.'
They lost forty ships in the battle, and the twenty which remained
came out of the engagement with beaks so bent and blunted as to be
no longer serviceable. The Phocaeans therefore sailed back again to
Alalia, and taking their wives and children on board, with such
portion of their goods and chattels as the vessels could bear, bade
adieu to Cyrnus and sailed to Rhegium.
The Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians, who had got into their hands
many more than the Phocaeans from among the crews of the forty vessels
that were destroyed, landed their captives upon the coast after the
fight, and stoned them all to death. Afterwards, when sheep, or
oxen, or even men of the district of Agylla passed by the spot where
the murdered Phocaeans lay, their bodies became distorted, or they
were seized with palsy, or they lost the use of some of their limbs.
On this the people of Agylla sent to Delphi to ask the oracle how they
might expiate their sin. The answer of the Pythoness required them
to institute the custom, which they still observe, of honouring the
dead Phocaeans with magnificent funeral rites, and solemn games,
both gymnic and equestrian. Such, then, was the fate that befell the
Phocaean prisoners. The other Phocaeans, who had fled to Rhegium,
became after a while the founders of the city called Vela, in the
district of Oenotria. This city they colonised, upon the showing of
a man of Posidonia, who suggested that the oracle had not meant to bid
them set up a town in Cyrnus the island, but set up the worship of
Cyrnus the hero.
Thus fared it with the men of the city of Phocaea in Ionia. They
of Teos did and suffered almost the same; for they too, when
Harpagus had raised his mound to the height of their defences, took
ship, one and all, and sailing across the sea to Thrace, founded there
the city of Abdera. The site was one which Timesius of Clazomenae
had previously tried to colonise, but without any lasting success, for
he was expelled by the Thracians. Still the Teians of Abdera worship
him to this day as a hero.
Of all the Ionians these two states alone, rather than submit to
slavery, forsook their fatherland. The others (I except Miletus)
resisted Harpagus no less bravely than those who fled their country,
and performed many feats of arms, each fighting in their own
defence, but one after another they suffered defeat; the cities were
taken, and the inhabitants submitted, remaining in their respective
countries, and obeying the behests of their new lords. Miletus, as I
have already mentioned, had made terms with Cyrus, and so continued at
peace. Thus was continental Ionia once more reduced to servitude;
and when the Ionians of the islands saw their brethren upon the
mainland subjugated, they also, dreading the like, gave themselves
up to Cyrus.
It was while the Ionians were in this distress, but still, amid it
all, held their meetings, as of old, at the Panionium, that Bias of
Priene, who was present at the festival, recommended (as I am
informed) a project of the very highest wisdom, which would, had it
been embraced, have enabled the Ionians to become the happiest and
most flourishing of the Greeks. He exhorted them "to join in one body,
set sail for Sardinia, and there found a single Pan-Ionic city; so
they would escape from slavery and rise to great fortune, being
masters of the largest island in the world, exercising dominion even
beyond its bounds; whereas if they stayed in Ionia, he saw no prospect
of their ever recovering their lost freedom." Such was the counsel
which Bias gave the Ionians in their affliction. Before their
misfortunes began, Thales, a man of Miletus, of Phoenician descent,

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