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had recommended a different plan. He counselled them to establish a
single seat of government, and pointed out Teos as the fittest place
for it; "for that," he said, "was the centre of Ionia. Their other
cities might still continue to enjoy their own laws, just as if they
were independent states." This also was good advice.
After conquering the Ionians, Harpagus proceeded to attack the
Carians, the Caunians, and the Lycians. The Ionians and Aeolians
were forced to serve in his army. Now, of the above nations the
Carians are a race who came into the mainland from the islands. In
ancient times they were subjects of king Minos, and went by the name
of Leleges, dwelling among the isles, and, so far as I have been
able to push my inquiries, never liable to give tribute to any man.
They served on board the ships of king Minos whenever he required; and
thus, as he was a great conqueror and prospered in his wars, the
Carians were in his day the most famous by far of all the nations of
the earth. They likewise were the inventors of three things, the use
of which was borrowed from them by the Greeks; they were the first
to fasten crests on helmets and to put devices on shields, and they
also invented handles for shields. In the earlier times shields were
without handles, and their wearers managed them by the aid of a
leathern thong, by which they were slung round the neck and left
shoulder. Long after the time of Minos, the Carians were driven from
the islands by the Ionians and Dorians, and so settled upon the
mainland. The above is the account which the Cretans give of the
Carians: the Carians themselves say very differently. They maintain
that they are the aboriginal inhabitants of the part of the mainland
where they now dwell, and never had any other name than that which
they still bear; and in proof of this they show an ancient temple of
Carian Jove in the country of the Mylasians, in which the Mysians
and Lydians have the right of worshipping, as brother races to the
Carians: for Lydus and Mysus, they say, were brothers of Car. These
nations, therefore, have the aforesaid right; but such as are of a
different race, even though they have come to use the Carian tongue,
are excluded from this temple.
The Caunians, in my judgment, are aboriginals; but by their own
account they came from Crete. In their language, either they have
approximated to the Carians, or the Carians to them- on this point I
cannot speak with certainty. In their customs, however, they differ
greatly from the Carians, and not only so, but from all other men.
They think it a most honourable practice for friends or persons of the
same age, whether they be men, women, or children, to meet together in
large companies, for the purpose of drinking wine. Again, on one
occasion they determined that they would no longer make use of the
foreign temples which had been long established among them, but
would worship their own old ancestral gods alone. Then their whole
youth took arms, and striking the air with their spears, marched to
the Calyndic frontier, declaring that they were driving out the
foreign gods.
The Lycians are in good truth anciently from Crete; which
island, in former days, was wholly peopled with barbarians. A
quarrel arising there between the two sons of Europa, Sarpedon and
Minos, as to which of them should be king, Minos, whose party
prevailed, drove Sarpedon and his followers into banishment. The
exiles sailed to Asia, and landed on the Milyan territory. Milyas
was the ancient name of the country now inhabited by the Lycians:
the Milyae of the present day were, in those times, called Solymi.
So long as Sarpedon reigned, his followers kept the name which they
brought with them from Crete, and were called Termilae, as the Lycians
still are by those who live in their neighbourhood. But after Lycus,
the son of Pandion, banished from Athens by his brother Aegeus had
found a refuge with Sarpedon in the country of these Termilae, they
came, in course of time, to be called from him Lycians. Their
customs are partly Cretan, partly Carian. They have, however, one
singular custom in which they differ from every other nation in the

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