world. They take the mother's and not the father's name. Ask a
Lycian who he is, and he answers by giving his own name, that of his
mother, and so on in the female line. Moreover, if a free woman
marry a man who is a slave, their children are full citizens; but if a
free man marry a foreign woman, or live with a concubine, even
though he be the first person in the State, the children forfeit all
the rights of citizenship.
Of these nations, the Carians submitted to Harpagus without
performing any brilliant exploits. Nor did the Greeks who dwelt in
Caria behave with any greater gallantry. Among them were the Cnidians,
colonists from Lacedaemon, who occupy a district facing the sea, which
is called Triopium. This region adjoins upon the Bybassian Chersonese;
and, except a very small space, is surrounded by the sea, being
bounded on the north by the Ceramic Gulf, and on the south by the
channel towards the islands of Syme and Rhodes. While Harpagus was
engaged in the conquest of Ionia, the Cnidians, wishing to make
their country an island, attempted to cut through this narrow neck
of land, which was no more than five furlongs across from sea to
sea. Their whole territory lay inside the isthmus; for where Cnidia
ends towards the mainland, the isthmus begins which they were now
seeking to cut through. The work had been commenced, and many hands
were employed upon it, when it was observed that there seemed to be
something unusual and unnatural in the number of wounds that the
workmen received, especially about their eyes, from the splintering of
the rock. The Cnidians, therefore, sent to Delphi, to inquire what
it was that hindered their efforts; and received, according to their
own account, the following answer from the oracle:-
Fence not the isthmus off, nor dig it through-
Jove would have made an island, had he wished.
So the Cnidians ceased digging, and when Harpagus advanced with his
army, they gave themselves up to him without striking a blow.
Above Halicarnassus and further from the coast, were the
Pedasians. With this people, when any evil is about to befall either
themselves or their neighbours, the priestess of Minerva grows an
ample beard. Three times has this marvel happened. They alone, of
all the dwellers in Caria, resisted Harpagus for a while, and gave him
much trouble, maintaining themselves in a certain mountain called
Lida, which they had fortified; but in course of time they also were
forced to submit.
When Harpagus, after these successes, led his forces into the
Xanthian plain, the Lycians of Xanthus went out to meet him in the
field: though but a small band against a numerous host, they engaged
in battle, and performed many glorious exploits. Overpowered at
last, and forced within their walls, they collected into the citadel
their wives and children, all their treasures, and their slaves; and
having so done, fired the building, and burnt it to the ground.
After this, they bound themselves together by dreadful oaths, and
sallying forth against the enemy, died sword in hand, not one
escaping. Those Lycians who now claim to be Xanthians, are foreign
immigrants, except eighty families, who happened to be absent from the
country, and so survived the others. Thus was Xanthus taken by
Harpagus, and Caunus fell in like manner into his hands; for the
Caunians in the main followed the example of the Lycians.
While the lower parts of Asia were in this way brought under by
Harpagus, Cyrus in person subjected the upper regions, conquering
every nation, and not suffering one to escape. Of these conquests I
shall pass by the greater portion, and give an account of those only
which gave him the most trouble, and are the worthiest of mention.
When he had brought all the rest of the continent under his sway, he
made war on the Assyrians.
Assyria possesses a vast number of great cities, whereof the
most renowned and strongest at this time was Babylon, whither, after