are, the priests, the warriors, the cowherds, the swineherds, the
tradesmen, the interpreters, and the boatmen. Their titles indicate
their occupations. The warriors consist of Hermotybians and
Calascirians, who come from different cantons, the whole of Egypt
being parcelled out into districts bearing this name.
The following cantons furnish the Hermotybians:- The cantons of
Busiris, Sais, Chemmis, Papremis, that of the island called
Prosopitis, and half of Natho. They number, when most numerous, a
hundred and sixty thousand. None of them ever practices a trade, but
all are given wholly to war.
The cantons of the Calascirians are different- they include the
following:- The cantons of Thebes, Bubastis, Aphthis, Tanis, Mendes,
Sebennytus, Athribis, Pharbaethus, Thmuis, Onuphis, Anysis, and
Myecphoris- this last canton consists of an island which lies over
against the town of Bubastis. The Calascirians, when at their greatest
number, have amounted to two hundred and fifty thousand. Like the
Hermotybians, they are forbidden to pursue any trade, and devote
themselves entirely to warlike exercises, the son following the
father's calling.
Whether the Greeks borrowed from the Egyptians their notions about
trade, like so many others, I cannot say for certain. I have
remarked that the Thracians, the Scyths, the Persians, the Lydians,
and almost all other barbarians, hold the citizens who practice
trades, and their children, in less repute than the rest, while they
esteem as noble those who keep aloof from handicrafts, and
especially honour such as are given wholly to war. These ideas prevail
throughout the whole of Greece, particularly among the Lacedaemonians.
Corinth is the place where mechanics are least despised.
The warrior class in Egypt had certain special privileges in which
none of the rest of the Egyptians participated, except the priests. In
the first place each man had twelve arurae of land assigned him free
from tax. (The arura is a square of a hundred Egyptian cubits, the
Egyptian cubit being of the same length as the Samian.) All the
warriors enjoyed this privilege together, but there were other
advantages which came to each in rotation, the same man never
obtaining them twice. A thousand Calascirians, and the same number
of Hermotybians, formed in alternate years the body-guard of the king;
and during their year of service these persons, besides their
arurae, received a daily portion of meat and drink, consisting of five
pounds of baked bread, two pounds of beef, and four cups of wine.
When Apries, at the head of his mercenaries, and Amasis, in
command of the whole native force of the Egyptians, encountered one
another near the city of Momemphis, an engagement presently took
place. The foreign troops fought bravely, but were overpowered by
numbers, in which they fell very far short of their adversaries. It is
said that Apries believed that there was not a god who could cast
him down from his eminence, so firmly did he think that he had
established himself in his kingdom. But at this time the battle went
against him, and his army being worsted, he fell into the enemy's
hands and was brought back a prisoner to Sais, where he was lodged
in what had been his own house, but was now the palace of Amasis.
Amasis treated him with kindness, and kept him in the palace for a
while; but finding his conduct blamed by the Egyptians, who charged
him with acting unjustly in preserving a man who had shown himself
so bitter an enemy both to them and him, he gave Apries over into
the hands of his former subjects, to deal with as they chose. Then the
Egyptians took him and strangled him, but having so done they buried
him in the sepulchre of his fathers. This tomb is in the temple of
Minerva, very near the sanctuary, on the left hand as one enters.
The Saites buried all the kings who belonged to their canton inside
this temple; and thus it even contains the tomb of Amasis, as well
as that of Apries and his family. The latter is not so close to the
sanctuary as the former, but still it is within the temple. It
stands in the court, and is a spacious cloister built of stone and

Page 43